BPS Research Library

The BPS Research Library aims to condense existing research into the role of board certification in patient care, health outcomes, and pharmacist career journey. This library is continually updated with  articles highlighting research pertinent to BPS board certification. 

Advancing pediatric antimicrobial stewardship: Has pharmacodynamic dosing for gram-negative infections taken effect?This study's primary objective was to characterize pharmacodynamic dosing strategies used at children's hospitals using a national survey. They concluded that further guidance from trials and literature are needed to better assist pediatric pharmacodynamic dosing efforts, an area where board certified pharmacists may be of assistance.  Jason G Newland, Jennifer E Girotto, Lauren M PuckettImproved Patient Outcomesimproved-patient-outcomes
Board of Regents Commentary Qualifications of Pharmacists Who Provide Direct Patient Care: Perspectives on the Need for Residency Training and Board CertificationIn this commentary, ACCP defines what "direct patient care" is and why they believe that pharmacists engaging in patient care should become board certified.  ACCP, Michael S. MadduxCareer Advancementcareer-advancement
Recommendations for Aligning PGY2 Pharmacy Residency Training and Pharmacy Specialist Board CertificationThere is an increased focus and anticipation of growth in the specialty training and certification realm of the pharmacy profession. This paper outlines three recommendations for PGY2 residency programs to better align with specialty board certification programs to ensure pharmacists complete their residency with a better competence in their specialized field.  Alexandre Chan, American College of Clinical Pharmacy, Brian Hemstreet, Charles Daniels, Douglas Covey, Krystal L. Edwards, Megan E. Musselman, Nancy L. Shapiro, Neal Benedict, Todd D. Sorensen, Tracy Hagemann, William MillerCareer Advancementcareer-advancement
Exploring the relationship between examination pass rates and eligibility pathways among pharmacist candidates for initial board certificationIn this retrospective observational cohort study, BPS conducted research on pass rates and eligibilty pathways looking at pharmacists who got board certified in the following specialties: BCACP, BCCCP, BCOP, BCPPS, BCPS, BCPP. In summary, those that complete postgraduate training showed a correlations to higher pass rates.  Samuel Johnson, Shonai Someshwar, Siddiq Kassam, Timothy Muckle, William EllisCareer Advancementcareer-advancement
Revisiting the relationship between examination pass rate and eligilibity pathway among candidates for pharmacist board certificaitonThis cross-sectional study was conducted to revisit data compiled by Johnson et al (2019) while also adding some new data points (BCSCP and BCEMP). The purpose of this study was to compare the examination pass rates amongst the various cohorts of practice specialties recognized by BPS. Overall, analyses show higher performance was meausred in those completing a PGY2 than those only completing a PGY1.  Amin Saiar | PhD, Elizabeth LaNou | PharmD | BCPS, William Ellis | MS | RPh | ICE- CCP, Yu Meng | PhDCareer Advancementcareer-advancement
Oncology pharmacy practice in the United States: Results of a comprehensive, nationwide surveyAs the rates of cancer is expected to increase by almost 50% by 2050, the workforce will need to adapt to support the expanding patient population. HOPA members were surveyed between March 2021 and January 2022 regarding pharmacy practice. Nearly 70% of all surveyed centers encouraged certification for oncology pharmacists.  Aubrey Lasko, Benjamin J Andrick, David Doan, Grazyna Riebrandt, Jessie R signorelli, Shannon Hough, Shawn P Griffin, Stephen HarnicarGold Standard for Employersgold-standard-for-employers
The Expanded Role of the Transplant Pharmacist: A Ten Year Follow-upAs the realm of transplant pharmacy continues to grow both in size and recognition, this paper helps address those changes and future of solid organ transplant.  Alicia B. Lichvar | PharmD | MS, Amanda J. Condon Martinez | PharmD, Barrett R. Crowther | PharmD, Christina Teeter Doligalski | PharmD, David J. Taber | PharmD | MS, Elizabeth A. Cohen | PharmD, Lisa M.M. Potter | PharmD, Mary Moss Chandran | PharmD, Rita R. Alloway | PharmDGold Standard for Employersgold-standard-for-employers
Evolving Roles of Palliative Care PharmacistsThis article outlines the necessity of board certification in the realm of palliative care and how pharmacists have played a vital role in this arena. It concludes with a call to action in the creation of a new certification.  Gavin Enck | PhD | HEC-C, Jeffrey Fudin | BS | PharmD | FCCP | FASCHP | FFSMB, Jessica Geiger | PharmD | MS | BCPS, Lisa Luciani | PharmD | BCPS, Mary Lynn McPherson | PharmD | MA | MDE | BCPSImproved Patient Outcomesimproved-patient-outcomes
Ambulatory care pharmacy practice: Findings from the 2019 National Pharmacist Workforce SurveyA subset from the 2019 National Pharmacist Workforce Summary (NPWS) data (n = 4,557) was used to aggregate the demographics, training, clinical specialties, and practice activities of ambulatory care pharmacists. Within this data, information on active pharmacists and their certifications was highlighted. Ambulatory care pharmacists reported having more training and certifications than the overall sample of pharmacists.  Brianne K Bakken | PharmD | MGA, Brooke Foster | PharmD, Caroline A Gaither | PhD, David H Kreling | PhD, David Mott | PhD, Jon C Schommer | PhD, Kevin M Bozymski | PharmD | BCPS | BCPP, matthew J Witry | PhD, Sean D Blaeser | PharmD, Vibuthi Arya | PharmD, William R Doucette | PhDGold Standard for Employersgold-standard-for-employers
Implementation and expansion of inpatient and ambulatory pharmacist credentialing and privileging at an academic medical centerCredentialing & Privileging (C&P) is a process recognized to advance pharmacy practice; credentialing speaks to an individual's qualification while privileging is where an institution grants the individual authorities to perform services. Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) pursued C&P for both inpatient and ambulatory clinical pharmacists. OHSU already operates with an advanced pharmacy practice integrated into their interdisciplinary team; therefore, pharmacist C&P allows pharmacist to demonstrate significant clinical benefit and quality improvement in patient care deliver.  Aaron Pham | PharmD | BCOP, Colleen Shipman | PharmD | MPH | BCPS, Courtney Dawson | PharmD | MBA | MPH | BCPS, Gary Lau | PharmD | BCOP, Yen Pham | RPh | MBAGold Standard for Employersgold-standard-for-employers
Postgraduate Year One Pharmacy Residency Program EquivalencyACCP charged the Task Force on Residency Equivalency to define what professional experience expected of a pharmacist after completing a PGY1 residency. In the past, there has been a shift on what the public demands are of healthcare and of pharmacy; ACCP hopes to meet these demands by 2020 in having pharmacists complete a residency as a prerequisite to providing direct patient care.  American College of Clinical Pharmacy, Bob Lobo | Pharm.D., Charles Hartis | Pharm.D., Ché J. Jordan | Pharm.D., Freddy M. Creekmore | Pharm.D., Geoffrey C. Wall | Pharm.D., Julie Wilkinson | Pharm.D., Kelli Sorrells | Pharm.D., Linda Uchal | Pharm.D, Shannon Miller | Pharm.D.Career Advancementcareer-advancement
American College of Clinical Pharmacy ‘s Vision of the Future: Postgraduate Pharmacy Residency Training as a Prerequisite for Direct Patient Care PracticeACCP presents a vision for the future of the pharmacy profession dictating that "formal, postgraduate residency training will become mandatory before one can enter practice." This article further expands on this notion and examines evidence to support their vision.  Brian A. Hemstreet | Pharm.D., Claudia A. Kamper | Pharm.D., Cory G. Garvin | Pharm.D., Cynthia A. Sanoski Pharm.D., Jean M. Nappi | Pharm.D. | FCCP, John A. Bosso | Pharm.D. | FCCP, John E. Murphy | Pharm.D. | FCCP, Joseph J. Saseen | Pharm.D. | FCCP, Lingtak-Neander Chan | Pharm.D., Mary Ann Halloran | Pharm.D., Patricia E. Grunwald | Pharm.D., Paul L. Witkowski Pharm.D, Paul P. Dobesh | Pharm.D. | FCCP, Sarah A. Spinler | Pharm.D. | FCCP, Timothy E. Welty | Pharm.D. | FCCPCareer Advancementcareer-advancement
ACCP Editorial: Does Board Certification Really Matter?As pharmacy continues to evolve, so do the needs of the public. Board certification may become increasingly important as patients desire more accountability and improved quality in their healthcare.  Stuart T HainesCareer Advancementcareer-advancement
ACCP clinical pharmacist competencies: Advocating alignment between student, resident, and practitioner competenciesThis article advocates for the deliberate alignment of educational outcomes, goals, and competencies across the developmental continuum of students, residents, and pharmacy practitioners. These goals will help programs optimally prepare individuals for board certification and future professional roles.  Barkha Jain | Pharm.D., Christy S. Harris | Pharm.D., Elizabeth Rogers | Pharm.D. | MPH, Emily J Ashjian | PHarmD, Eric J. MacLaughlin | Pharm.D. | FCCP, Janet P. Engle | PharmD | FCCP, Jay L. Martello | Pharm.D., Jill S Borchert | PharmD | FCCP, John M Burke | PharmD | FCCP, Katherine Moore | Pharm.D., Lisa Avery PharmD | FCCP, Megan C. Herink | Pharm.D., Paul M. Stranges | Pharm.D., Sara Jane E. Faro | PharmD, Winter J. Smith | Pharm.D.Career Advancementcareer-advancement
Keeping Up With the Literature: New Solutions for an Old ProblemStaying up to date with the current literature can be challenging, especially when the sheer number of publications produced continues to grow. This article explores five strategies to help pharmacists stay up to date with new literature.  Bryan P White, Katy S StephensCareer Advancementcareer-advancement
Evaluating board certification within international advanced pharmacy practice frameworksBoard certification and promoting specialization of pharmacy practice has been recognized in nearly 50 countries. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the intersections of board certification and international advanced pharmacy practice frameworks.  Brian Lawson, Josep M. Guiu-SeguraCareer Advancementcareer-advancement
Board-certified pharmacy specialties: Growth from 2008 to 2020 and projections to 2025The purpose of this report is to analyze the recent growth in board certified pharmacists via the Board of Pharmacy Specialties. The growth has been unprecedented, and it may showcase the overall demand for pharmacy specialists in communities.  Katherine Knapp, Robert Ignoffo, William EllisCareer Advancementcareer-advancement
Creation of a Certification requirement for pharmacists in direct patient care roles.The pharmacy leadership team at University of Wisconsin Health used an iterative process and a "rolling" FAQ format to develop and implement a certification requirement. Residents who achieve board certification claim it is valuable, gain personal satisfaction, expand their knowledge, and overall has helped them find careers.  David R. Hager | PharmD | BCPS, Katherine J Hartkopf | PharmD | BCACP, Sara M. Koth | PharmD, Steven S. Rough | MS | BSPharmCareer Advancementcareer-advancement
Collaboration between child and adolescent psychiatrists and mental health pharmacists to improve treatment outcomesMedication safety in children and adolescents continues to be a public health concern, especially with psychiatric conditions. Interdisciplinary collaboration between psychiatrists and pharmacists can improve health outcomes, including quality of care and patient safety.  Debbie H Lu | PharmD | MPH, Dri Wang, Jessica K Jeffrey | MD | MPH | MBA | FAPA | DF-AACAP, Julie A Dopheide | PharmD | BCPP | FASHP, PharmD | BCPP, Steven Chen | PharmD | FASHP | FCSHP | FNAPImproved Patient Outcomesimproved-patient-outcomes
The Effect of Cardiovascular Credentialed Pharmacists on Process Measures and Outcomes in Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure.Added qualifications in cardiology (AQCV) have been approved and require the applicant to be BCPS certified before applying for added qualifications. The purpose of this study was to determine if pharmacists with advanced credentials exhibited improved quality measures for various cardiovascular disorders compared to institutions lacking cardiovascular credentialed pharmacists.  Jennifer M. Lose, Michael P. Dorsch, Rovert J. DiDomenicoGold Standard for Employersgold-standard-for-employers
Pharmacist’s attitudes and knowledge of pharmacogenomics and the factors that may predict future engagementPharmacists are well positioned to assist in the implementation of pharmacogenomic testing in healthcare systems, but uptake has been limited. In this study, a survey was conducted to determine how post-graduate training and board certification influence pharmacists' attitude and knowledge in pharmacogenomic testing.  Ann Yapel, Danielle A MacDonald, David D. Sperl, David D. Stenehjem, Jacob T. Brown, Megan E Hundertmark, Stephen C WaringGold Standard for Employersgold-standard-for-employers
Scope of contemporary pharmacy practice: Roles, responsibilities, and functions of pharmacists and pharmacy techniciansHealthcare and pharmacy practice are continually evolving, and this may allow for new opportunities for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians to perform functions and provide services not currently considered with their traditional roles.  Marissa Shlaifer Bpharm MS, Michael J. Rouse Bpharm(Hons) MPS, Nicole Palini Albanesse PharmDGold Standard for Employersgold-standard-for-employers
Role of the US Veterans Health Administration Clinical Pharmacy Specialist Provider: Shaping the Future of Comprehensive Medication ManagementThis review article highlights the Veteran Health Administration's efforts to utilize clinical pharmacy specialists as direct patient care providers to increase quality of care and access to care for veteran patients.  Andrea Searle | BS | PharmD, Anthony Morreale | PharmD | MBA | BCPS | FASHP, Heather Ourth | PharmD | BCPS | BCGP, Julie Groppi | PharmD | FASHP, M Shawn McFarland | PharmD | FCCP | BCACP, Tera Moore | PharmD | BCACP, Terri Jorgenson | RPh | BCPSGold Standard for Employersgold-standard-for-employers
Prevalence of and incentives for board certification among hospital pharmacy departments in CaliforniaBPS certification is endorsed to distinguish pharmacists for their advanced practice and highlight their expertise. This study characterizes how board certification is integrated into hospital pharmacy departments across California.  Christina A Vu | PharmD Student, Mengxi Wang | MPH, Mimi Lou | MS, Samantha L. Yeung | PharmD | MS | BCCP, Tien M H Ng | PharmD | FHFSA | FCCP | BCPS-AQ CardiologyGold Standard for Employersgold-standard-for-employers
ACCP Position Statement: Board Certification of Pharmacist SpecialistsThis article highlights ACCP's stance on the role and necessity of board certification within the pharmacy profession.  Amy Robbins Williams, Ann E Canales, Carol A Ott, Danielle L Wham, James Michael Nash, Jeffrey M Cavanaugh, Joel C Marrs, Mary M Bradbury, Mary W Lee, Melissa Badowski, Miranda R Andrus, Peter G Koval, Stuart T HainesGold Standard for Employersgold-standard-for-employers
Expanding the pharmacist’s scope of practice at the state level: Support for board certification within the credentialing processThis article describes how the expanding scope of pharmacy and board certification should be discussed together and how they may work in tandem. The commentary will help advocates at the state level to revise pharmacy practice acts to reflect the changing landscape.  Brendan Manga | PharmD, Elizabeth Beckman | PharmD, Joseph J. Saseen | PharmD | FCCP, Kelsey Japs | PharmD, Mary Lee | PharmD | FCCP, Michael Gabay | PharmD, Sarah McBane | PharmD | FCCP, Scott Coon | PharmD, Sharon See | PharmD | FCCPGold Standard for Employersgold-standard-for-employers
ASHP Statement on the Pharmacist’s Role in clinical PharmacogenomicsAs per ASHP, pharmacists have a responsibility to help patients receive the best possible therapy; pharmacogenomics can play an important role in improving medication-related outcomes across the continuum of care in all health-system practice settings. These advanced pharmacist functions may require specialized education, training, or experience to provide optimal outcomes for patient populations.  Carolyn Oxencis | PharmD | BCOP, Cyrine-Eliana Haidar | PharmD | BCPS | BCOP, James M Hoffman | PharmD | MS, Janine S Douglas | PharmD | BCPS, Natasha Petry | PharmD | MPH | BCACPImproved Patient Outcomesimproved-patient-outcomes
Board-Certified Oncology Pharmacists: Their Potential Contribution to Reducing a Shortfall in Oncology Patient VisitsAs the US population ages, the number of patients who need cancer treatment will far exceed the amount of oncology physicians available. To help mitigate this impending shortfall, there may be a need to rely on non-physician healthcare practitioners, such as BCOPs, to manage patients.  Ali McBride | MS | BCPS | BCOP, Cindy L. O'Bryant | PharmD | BCOP | FCCP, Dayna McCauley | PharmD | BCOP, James Trovato | PharmD | MBA | BCOP | FASHP, Jasen Knudsen | PharmD | BCPS | BCOP, Katherin Knapp | PhD | FAPhA, Lew Iacovelli | PharmD | BCOP | CPP, Mitchell Barnett | PharmD, Patrick Medina | PharmD | BCOP, Robert Ignoffo | PharmD | FASHP | FCSHP, Rovert Mancini | PharmD | BCOP, Sally Yowell Barbour | PharmD | MS | BCOP | CPP, Sarah Scarpace | PharmD | MPH | BCOP, Steve D'Amato | BSPharm | BCOP, Steve Stricker | PharmD | MS | BCOP, Susannah E. Koontz | PharmD | BCOPImproved Patient Outcomesimproved-patient-outcomes
Positioning psychiatric pharmacists to improve mental health careAs psychiatric pharmacy continues to grow, the AAPP considers BCPPs as the gold standard credential that all psychiatric pharmacists should attain. BCPPs offer a lot of support in the psychiatric field such as comprehensive medication management and psychotropic stewardship aimed at improving population health. By encouraging aspiring PGY1 residents to consider specialization, this may help better position pharmacists to earn their BCPP and improve mental health care.  Amy Werremeyer, Andrew M Williams, CynthiaA Gutierrez, Julie A Dopheide, Robert J HaightImproved Patient Outcomesimproved-patient-outcomes
Pharmacist Avoidance or Reductions in Medical Costs in CRITically Ill Adults: PHARM-CRIT StudyThe objective of this study was to classify interventions performed by ICU clinical pharmacists and quantify the cost avoidance generated through their accepted interventions. In summary, pharmacist involvement in the care of the critically ill resulted in significant avoidance of healthcare costs.  Alexander H. Flannery | PharmD | PhD | FCCM, Drayton A. Hammond | PharmD | MBA | MSc, Keaton S. Smetana | PharmD, Megan A, Megan A. Van Berkel | PharmD, Payal K. Gurnani | PharmD | FCCM, Rech | PharmD | MS | FCCM, William J. Peppard | PharmD | FCCMImproved Patient Outcomesimproved-patient-outcomes